The number 1 complaint of people from animal production sites are odor emissions. This is the reason why looking for a facility that is far from residential communities pose a big problem. Moreover, the option to choose is not always a possibility for producers and therefore knowing how to reduce emissions from farms tends to be the only viable option for them. Here is how gas collection covers are used to reduce odor emissions in farms.
About 99% of odors from livestock and poultry are a result of the anaerobic decomposition of livestock waste which include urine and fecal material. Other sources of waste included as well are bedding materials, wash water and spilled feeds. The odor from this waste sources go up due to increased organic loading rates brought by a bigger animal population, lack of dilution water and concentrated streams of waste. The condition worsens when the manure is disturbed during windy conditions or when agitated from pumping before land application. Another phenomenon called spring turnover usually seen during the cold weather months also is a factor in increasing odors from manure storage sites.
The main solution for reducing odors and emissions is by using a devices like floating lagoon covers which function to establish a physical barrier that can prevent VOCs from evaporating from the liquid. Gases like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and volatile fatty acids are the ones primarily responsible for the nasty smell. While it is true that these gases can easily be released from land application and agitation, the total emissions from sites will be reduced greatly.
Using a cover system has become quite popular with farmers that utilize manure storages and anaerobic lagoons and is fast becoming known as one of the few effective mens or controlling the emissions from these sites. While it is true that the installation of a cover system is not the ultimate solution to the problem, using it will reduce the odors enough to the point that complaints from nearby residents would be reduced.
Aside from agitation and land application other possible sources of odor release may be from the effluent of the covered storage system which likely is released during recharge. Higher levels of toxic gas may affect the health of animals and workers therefore proper suiting and monitoring is warranted.